Từ điển word family

The Word Family Framework (WFF) places 22,000 words on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

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It shows how words within the same family are placed at different levels and is aimed at teachers who can use it khổng lồ plan courses, syllabi và lessons. The WFF is the product of an ELT research award & was designed by Richard West.


What is the Word Family Framework (WFF)?

The WFF is a searchable resource for teachers & learners of English that consists of over 22,000 vocabulary items arranged according to six levels aligned to lớn the Comtháng European Framework of Reference.

Start using the Word Family Framework

What can the WFF be used for?

The WFF can be used by institutions, teachers and learners khổng lồ construct target vocabularies for individual learning, syllabus và lesson planning, materials thiết kế và exam preparation. It can be used for two different types of vocabulary selection:

‘Vertical searches’

Identifying all the vocabulary items at one CEFR cấp độ.Identifying all the vocabulary items at several CEFR levels.

‘Horizontal searches’

Identifying the CEFR màn chơi of an individual word or group of words.Identifying the CEFR levels of all the members of a word family in order to decide which items may be worth learning.Identifying unknown members of word families in order to extover a learner’s vocabulary.

How can the WFF be searched?

The WFF can be searched in three main ways:

1. For horizontal searches to lớn look for a particular word or công trình, type the term you are looking for in the search box.

2. For vertical searches to find all the items at one or more CEFR levels, tiông chồng () all the CEFR levels you want.

3. To tải về the complete WFF, cliông xã the Download box.

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How does the WFF links khổng lồ the Comtháng European Framework of Reference (CEFR)?

The CEFR includes statements about the vocabulary range of a learner at each of six levels, A1 lớn C2.

 The CEFR’s descriptors make quantitative statements about the learner’s vocabulary repertoire at each màn chơi, but stop short of stating how large this repertoire might be at each cấp độ, or which vocabulary items would be appropriate for each cấp độ. However, the CEFR invites users of the Framework to lớn `consider and where appropriate state:

which lexical elements (fixed expressions & single word forms) the learner will need/be equipped/be required lớn recognise and/or use;how they are selected and ordered.’

It is just this selection và ordering of lexical elements that the WFF offers to lớn users.

How large is the WFF?

The WFF includes more than 22,000 words and vocabulary items. It starts with a các mục of some 6000 of the most common và useful hegoogle ads, arranged alphabetically for easy access. Most headwords provide the starting point for a word family, which includes the cognates, derivatives và compounds which hóa trang the family. All family members are then presented across a number of levels, so that the relative value of each vật phẩm may be quickly determined. 

How were the words in the WFF chosen?

The vocabulary items presented in the WFF have been chosen from a survey of a large number of published sources & word lists produced in the UK, USA, Germany, Europe & Đài Loan Trung Quốc. These lists vary in size and function, & the items in the lists were selected according khổng lồ differing criteria. The research that preceded the development of the WFF therefore began by surveying these lists in detail to identify the levels of agreement between these different sources. In this way, the WFF presents a consensus of views about the cấp độ of each vocabulary thành phầm.

How does the WFF differ from dictionaries và word lists?

Traditionally, dictionaries & word lists present lexical items in alphabetical order. The WFF, however, presents words in word families. Each family may include items that depart from strict alphabetical order. So, for example, the family value includes words such as devalue, evaluate & invaluable, which would be widely separated from value, valuable & valueless in a conventional dictionary or danh sách. They are presented together here because it is widely believed that seeing words as members of a family rather than in isolation promotes effective vocabulary learning:

What is column X và how vì I use it?

As can be seen here, in addition to lớn the six levels aligned lớn the CEFR, the WFF includes a column X. This column includes extra members of word families which are either a) off the A1–C2 scale, or b) not included in the main scale because there is insufficient information in the research data. It presents items of various kinds:

Learners and teachers may select from column X the items which they find useful and easy khổng lồ learn or teach. In this way, the WFF allows users not only to select vocabulary at a particular cấp độ (vertical searching), but also to lớn look across levels at items within the same family (horizontal searching).

What does the WFF not include?

The WFF includes a wide range of over 22,000 items of English vocabulary. It covers both British & American English, with variant spellings (honour/honor) và variant terms (lift/elevator). However, it is a framework of general English and so it does not include vocabulary items from academic, business, scientific or technical English. Neither does it include dialect or obsolete words found outside the common core of British or American English.

Can I adapt the WFF to my own context?

It is recognized that the WFF may not be fully appropriate for all learners or all learning situations. For this reason, the WFF will incorporate an interactive dimension, and users are invited khổng lồ discuss their views & the ways they use the WFF with the British Council and other users in the WFF discussion forum (cliông chồng for access). Our intention is that this discussion will lead khổng lồ the introduction of a facility which will enable users lớn download and adapt the WWF to lớn their particular local contexts.

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The WFF was developed for the British Council by Richard West, who would lượt thích to lớn acknowledge the contributions made by Dr Wendy Scarlin and Mrs Judy Hermitte.

Find out more about the practical applications of the Word Family Framework in this article: