Not until

Not until several years after a war has ended _________ khổng lồ feel the severe psychological damage it can cause.

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(A) do many of its veterans begin(B) many of its veterans begin(C) & many of its veterans begin(D) many of its veterans beginning

I chose B answer, but the correct answer (due lớn test) was A.

Could anytoàn thân explain why here we should use do clause?



When a sentence starts with "Not until", as well as many other phrases, the grammar needed is Inversion, which means using the interrogative khung of whatever tense the verb is in. "begin" is in Simple Present, so "do" is required. Here are some examples:

Not until John apologizes, will I go out with hlặng again.

Not until the teacher explained it again, did I underst&.

Not until I"ve sầu been working for ten years, will I have saved up enough money khổng lồ pay off my student loan.

Not until the temperature falls to lớn O degrees C does water turn to lớn ice.

There is a similar question at :Not until ( sentence ) + bởi vì (sentence)

but I believe sầu I"ve sầu explained it slightly differently.

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"Not till I got trang chủ did I realise my wallet was missing."

(Cambridge Dictionaries Online)

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edited Aquảng bá 13 "17 at 12:38

answered May 16 "16 at 14:00

Cathy GartaganisCathy Gartaganis
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This is a phenomenon called negative sầu inversion: when a sentence starts with a negative sầu adverbial like "never" or "not every day" or "not until several years after a war has ended", we get subject-auxiliary inversion that looks just like what you see in questions. So, for example, "you don"t see that sort of thing every day" can be rephrased as "not every day bởi vì you see that sort of thing", and "I"ll never help hyên ổn again" can be rephrased as "never again will I help him".

Oddly enough, negative sầu inversion also happens after some adverbials that are not obviously negative, or not completely negative; for example, it"s also triggered after "rarely" and "only ...".

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answered May 16 "16 at 14:13

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Well, the real reason is that the others sound wrong to a native speaker.

As for the technical justification, what you are looking khổng lồ bởi here is start what is called a verb phrase. In, a verb phrase is supposed lớn start with a verb. The words "many" & "and" are not verbs. "Do" is.

In fact "do" is a special verb that can be used specifically in instances where you need to turn a phrase lượt thích this inlớn a verb phrase.

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answered May 16 "16 at 13:46
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